Croquet OS
The Operating System for the Metaverse

Croquet has built a new web-based operating system that runs on any device, enabling users to create, share and explore ideas and concepts in a way that was imagined but until now has been impossible.

Powerful OS design for the Metaverse future

Bit identical simulation

The Croquet OS provides a kernel that enables bit identical shared simulations between users. This is essential in expanding the concept of WYSIWYG (What you see is what you get). With Croquet - What you see is what I see. You see what I do and the results of that action. Simultaneously, I see you and your actions.

Automatic saving the state of the kernel

The state of the shared kernel is automatically saved on a regular basis, along with all events that were used to construct this state. A new user can join the world simply by reading in this shared kernel state and then playing back any event messages that they missed since it was saved. If all the users leave the session, and later rejoin, they will pick up exactly where they left off.

Extremely low latency

The Croquet OS is a true Internet operating system. There is a local client that is built on the Croquet VM, but the VM in turn is integrated with the world-wide Croquet Reflector Network (CRN). The Croquet Kernel VM and the Croquet Reflector Network are what make up the Croquet OS.

Time-based OS

The key element of the Croquet OS is that bit identical time is an essential feature. A shared simulation requires not just that external events are propagated between the instances of the shared VM, but these events have an associated time stamp provided by the Croquet Reflector. This ensures that events occur and are processed at the same virtual time for all participants in a session.

Secure event/message distribution

Every event generated by a user is encrypted and then forwarded to a reflector. Only the participants in the same Croquet session are able to access and execute these messages. Even the Croquet Reflector cannot read them - it can only add a timestamp and redistribute it.

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This is how the real Metaverse will happen.

The web has evolved to be the most powerful computing platform in the world. It is not just the natural choice for enabling the Metaverse, it is guaranteed that it will become the de facto winner.


The web is everywhere. It runs on every device that has a screen. PCs, Macs, tablets, phones and XR. Browsers are already everywhere.

It has the largest development community by far. There are over 17 million JavaScript developers in the world today. In second place is HTML/CSS, which is also a part of the web community. The next closest is Python with two thirds the developers, but Python is not typically used as a Metaverse language. Even Typescript, a variant of JavaScript, beats out C# and C++.

It is friction free. This is amazingly important. The web works so well because you can access virtually any site from any device, anytime. This means that when I have a shared XR space hosted in the web cloud, you can join me within seconds - no downloads, no barriers. Instant access to your friends and your content.

It is dynamic – alive. JavaScript is a dynamic language. This is a secret superpower of the browser. It means that you can actually modify a JavaScript program while your web page is running, changing its behavior to meet your needs.

Performance is amazing - and getting even better. The browser’s performance has been increasing at an amazing pace over the last decade. There have been billions of dollars invested in making the browser the beast it is today. JavaScript has matured into a language that is extremely fast and powerful, but still easy to use - and it is still improving. WebGL provides native 3D rendering using the same GPU as AAA games. WebGPU is waiting in the wings and provides as much as a 10x improvement in performance over WebGL. WebAssembly provides near-native performance using traditional compiled languages like Rust. Rust itself is an amazing step forward in performance and code quality.

Built entirely on standards. The web is made up of a collection of very well defined and architected standards that enable developers to leverage billions of dollars of investment to create powerful and interoperable sites.

Totally open and free. The web is by far the largest open source project in the world. Nothing else comes close. The code for almost every page is immediately available by viewing source. More importantly, an uncountable number of frameworks have been created and provided for free that enable developers to easily and quickly construct powerful applications with a minimal amount of effort and time.

Portals are real and dynamic.Another huge win that only makes sense on the web are portals. Portals between microverses will transform the metaverse in the same way that links transformed the web. The web-based metaverse enables any world to be connected to any other world in the metaverse, no matter who developed it or on which web server it is hosted.

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